[1] This treatment of single-patient studies is not very fair, but I do not have space to discuss this topic. To know what proponents of single-case studies answer, see e. g. Caramazza and MacCloskey (1988) and (1991).

[2] Shallice does not argue much about repeating spoken words (the left half of Figure 1), but Figure 1 suggests that there are similar dissociations between spoken irregular words, spoken non-words and understanding of spoken words. Instead, Shallice has arguments on similar dissociations in spelling spoken words (Shallice 1988, 130-157).

[3] I am very thankful to Prof. Bub and his class for their stimulative discussions on this topic.